Cave explorations involve various teams with different skills. Teams to setup up the ropes and safety lines. Others to setup underground camps, some will study the topography while others create maps… not to forget the team of explorers that wonder in the caves exploring new passages and pathways. In some cases, cave-divers are required. To be able to dive in a cave, you have to be highly trained and very qualified diver, as it is completely different from diving in open water (seas, oceans..).
Expeditions often require a deep research on the area topography and its geology. These expeditions might take up to several years to fully explore one single cave, depends on the cave complexity.
There is nothing much that prepares you for caving, except being in the right mental state for taking comfort in very uncomfortable situations. It is when your body is in desperate need to rest, you are falling asleep, in pain and hunger; but the moment you stop to rest to replenish, you get cold. This is when most people hit “the wall” (check out my epic story on this). They get seduced by this sexy short rest, but the short rest is a trap, it becomes longer, and your body gets into a serious shock, which makes making a move an impossible action. So AVOID these stops, keep moving, eat on the go, time your rests by the seconds and not minutes, and again, MAKE A MOVE, NOW!